Questions:
What is diesel fuel?   Ans. Diesel fuel is a specific portion that is refined from crude oil.   Crude oil is a naturally occurring organic
liquid that is pumped from the ground.

What is premium diesel fuel?  Ans: There are no specific standards or guidelines established to govern classifying a Diesel Fuel
as a Premium Diesel Fuel. While there are octane standards defined for gasoline which determines a difference between grades
of gas there are no such specification standards for diesel fuel.
Premium Diesel (as defined by Amalgamated, Inc) is a chemically enhanced diesel fuel that provides the maximum power and
optimum performance when utilized in an engine. A true, quality Premium Diesel Fuel would contain cetane, stabilizers, detergents,
lubricity agents, and specific ancillary additives.

   a.  Cetane increases ignition and performance.
   b.  Stabilizers slow the natural hydrocarbon degradation of fuel oils during storage.
   c.  Detergents are used as cleaners to remove carbon and gummy deposits from fuel injection systems and keep them  
        clean.
   d.  Lubricity agents reduce friction in moving parts in fuel pumps and injectors to reduce maintenance and extend their life.
   e.  Ancillary additives reduce deposits, minimize rust and corrosion and extend the work life of a diesel engine.

What are diesel fuel additives?  Ans: Diesel Fuel additives are chemical compounds which when combined in specific
formulations alter the chemistry of the diesel fuel to improve specific properties or traits of the diesel fuel during storage or when
consumed.
How can the increased costs of Premium Diesel Fuel be justified?  Ans: The benefits of utilizing a Premium Diesel Fuel will
recover the minimal costs incurred to treat the diesel fuel as well as save money in the long run.   Diesel fuel economy
improvements are easy to track and calculate but they are just a portion of the savings that are achieved with quality diesel fuel
additives. Some diesel engine maintenance cost reductions from improved starting in cold weather that extends battery and starter
life are difficult to measure. Other saving are achieved over a much longer period of time like improved cleaning and better
lubricating of diesel fuel injectors and the diesel fuel pump resulting in less diesel engine fuel system component wear and
replacement. The ultimate savings is a greatly increased life expectancy of the diesel engine using a quality premium diesel fuel
incorporating the right diesel fuel additive.
Why FirePower brand by Amalgamated Inc? Ans: The dictionary defines 'amalgamate': To combine into a unified or
integrated whole. Amalgamated, Inc combines chemistries that, when mixed with diesel fuel, provide the best available
performance benefit improvements for diesel engines, systematically blended into a unified product that will not settle out or
separate over time.
Amalgamated, Inc has 47+ years of experience custom blending performance improving diesel fuel additives.   Our FirePower
premium brand is uniquely created to:

   1.  meet a customer's specifically identified need (MPG improvement, maintenance reduction, etc.)
   2.  address deficiencies in fuel quality
   3.  bridge the gap between fuel supply and OEM engine operation expectations

How do I calculate my needed treat ratio for diesel application? Ans:  It is a common question. The desired automotive
additive has a treat ratio of 1 gallon of additive for every 400 gallons of diesel fuel...but I'm only filling my tank with 50 gallons. How
do I know how much additive to use? 
The concept of a fuel additive ‘treat rate’ \of additive being put into a fuel is often misunderstood. It is not complicated and does not
have to be confusing as long as you do the math. 

The additive ‘treat rate’ is a ratio of the amount of additive used to the amount of fuel treated with the additive.

Example 1 : IF, an additive ‘treat rate’ is 1 to 7,500 (1:7500) thus, to achieve the product claims 1 gallon of additive should be put
into 7,500 gallons of fuel

Example 2:  IF, an additive ‘treat rate’ is 1 to 1,500 (1:1500) then to meet the product claims 1 gallon of additive must be put into
1,500 gallons of fuel

Example 3:  IF, an additive ‘treat rate’ is 1 to 500 (1:500) then, 1 gallon of additive must be put into 500 gallons of fuel
What does PPM mean? Ans: PPM is the abbreviation of PARTS PER MILLION.     In the additive formulation industry it
represents the minuscule amount of chemical components included in a formulation.    The treat ratio determines how much 'room'
is available in a formulation to include PPM's of active chemistry.
FOR EXAMPLE:
To convert the additive ‘treat rate’ into PPM (parts per million) the first number of the ‘treat rate’ is divided by the second number
and the result is multiplied by 1,000,000.

Example 1: IF, an additive ‘treat rate’ is 1 to 7,500 (1:7500) then, 1 is divided by 7,500 = 0.000133 x 1,000,000 = 133 PPMs of
active chemistry

Example 2: IF, an additive ‘treat rate’ is 1 to 1,500 (1:1500) then, 1 is divided by 1,500 = 0.000667 x 1,000,000 = 667 PPMs of
active chemistry

Example 3: IF, an additive ‘treat rate’ is 1 to 500 (1:500) then, 1 is divided by 1,500 = 0.002000 x 1,000,000 = 2000 PPMs of
active chemistry

PPM calculations remain true regardless of the size of the container as long as the liquid measurement remains the same (i.e.
gallons to gallons, quarts to quarts, pints to pints.) The results in PPMs are the same regardless of the size of the container.

Frequently Heard Terms
Ash- Ash is a naturally occurring non-combustible material in diesel fuel.
ASTM- American Society for Testing and Materials is an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary
consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services.
Atomization- Atomization is the result of the breakdown of diesel fuel droplets into fine particles when injected into the combustion
chamber of a diesel engine.
BTU- BTU is the measure of diesel fuels heat energy content.
Cetane- Cetane is a liquid hydrocarbon that is used in diesel fuels to improve ignition. In the United States, 40 is a minimum
cetane number.  OEM's expect a minimum of 50 cetane number and this is what technological expectations are designed to utilize
to achieve maximum performance.
Cetane Engine- Cetane Ignition Improver (2-ethyl-hexyl-nitrate) is added to shorten ignition delay in the fuel chamber which results
in an increased Engine Number.
Cetane Improver- Cetane Ignition Improver (2-ethyl-hexyl-nitrate) is added to reduce (shorten) ignition delay in the fuel chamber
which results in an increased Engine Number.
Cetane Index- The Cetane Index is solely dependent on the quality of the diesel fuel and is not affected by the addition of cetane
improver additive. It is a calculated number from the distillation tests on the fuel and its specific gravity.
CFPP- Cold Filter Plug Point - A laboratory test that measures the temperature when wax crystals restrict the flow of diesel fuel
through a specific mesh screen which simulates a fuel filter.
Cloud Point (CP)- The Cloud Point (abbreviated at CP) is the temperature of the diesel fuel when wax crystals begin to form and
the appearance of the diesel fuel begins to turn cloudy.
Corrosion Modifiers- Corrosion modifiers (often referred to as rust and corrosion inhibitors) prevent pitting and erosion of metal
surfaces which can cause or accelerate engine wear and damage.
Crude Oil- Crude Oil is an organic fossil petroleum liquid as it comes from the ground, before it is refined.
De-Emulsifiers- De-Emulsifiers should be added to diesel fuels (especially those advertised as "Premium") to minimize fuel /
water suspension.
Deposit Modifiers- Deposit modifiers should be added to diesel fuels (especially those advertised as "Premium") to minimize
non-combustible fuel related deposits.
Detergent- Detergent additives are used as cleaners to remove carbon and gummy deposits from fuel injection systems and keep
them clean.
Diesel Fuel- Diesel Fuel is a liquid material containing adequate BTU content used for combustion in a diesel engine.
EGR Valve- Diesel Fuel is a liquid material containing adequate BTU content used for combustion in a diesel engine.  The
purpose of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by returning a portion of the engine's
exhaust gas back to the engine's combustion cylinders.  This reduces the amount of heat in the cylinder.  NOx formation progresses
much faster at high temperatures, thus the EGR reduces the amount of NOx the combustion process generates.  The EGR valve
controls the amount of exhaust gases returned to the cylinders.
Emissions- Emulsification results when water becomes suspended in the diesel fuel.
Emulsification- Emulsification results when water becomes suspended in the diesel fuel.
Engine Deposits- Engine deposits are the non-combusted and non-combustible buildup of materials stemming from the use of
the fuel.
Engine Smoking- Excessive engine exhaust smoking is the result of inefficient combustion and poor fuel burning.
Flash Point- The flash point of fuel is the temperature at which the vapors from the fuel will ignite when exposed to an ignition
source.
Flow Improver- Flow improver chemistries in Premium Diesel Fuels work in concert to lower the Cold Flow Pour Point (CFPP) to
improve filterability.
Fuel- Fuel is used for ignition to propel an engine.  
Fuel Stabilizers- Gasoline is a liquid petroleum product used as a fuel source for ignition in typically smaller engines (such as
motorcycles, lawn mowers, personal watercraft, automobiles, small trucks, etc.   It is NOT compatible with engines designed to run
on diesel fuel. Accordingly, quality fuel additives for gasoline are different from those formulated especially for diesel fuel and
should never be used interchangeably. 
Fuel System- The fuel system is anything that that the fuel contacts.   It includes the fuel tank, fuel lines, fuel filter, fuel heaters and
fuel pump. It would also include any fuel modifiers such as the fuel injectors, EGR valve, etc.
Gasoline- Gasoline is a liquid petroleum product used as a fuel source for ignition in typically smaller engines (such as
motorcycles, lawn mowers, personal watercraft, automobiles, small trucks, etc.   It is NOT compatible with engines designed to run
on diesel fuel. Accordingly, quality fuel additives for gasoline are different from those formulated especially for diesel fuel and
should never be used interchangeably. 
Injectors- Fuel injectors are the part of the fuel delivery system that is used to force fuel under high pressure into the combustion
chamber.
Insoluble Dispersants- Insoluble dispersant additives (especially for advertised "Premium" Diesel Fuels) help breakup deposits
that are not able to be dissolved to improve filterability.
Jelling (or Gelling)- Jelling (or gelling) is the point at which a liquid becomes a solid.  This is a potentially hazardous situation for
diesel vehicles and leads directly into engine or equipment failure.
Knocking- Engine "knocking" is an audible result of fuel accumulation in the combustion chamber and a long delay in ignition.  
Often observed in cold weather and when fuel is of suspect combustion quality.
Lubricity- Lubricity is the fuels ability to reduce friction in moving parts and minimize wear in fuel pumps and injectors.
Metal Deactivators- Metal deactivators counteract dissimilar metal catalytic oxidation effects on fuel storage and diesel fuel
delivery systems.
Microbial Activity- Microbial activity is the presence of fungus or bacteria spores growing in the diesel fuel.   These living
organisms can accumulate to the point that they are visible to the naked eye.  Their waste products can be acidic and accelerate
tank and fuel system damage as well as cause filter clogging.  
Misfiring- Misfiring results from the lack of ignition in an engine cylinder.
NOx Emissions- Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions are formed from the high combustion temperature of diesel fuel and are present
in the exhaust.
OEM- OEM refers to Original Equipment Manufacturers.
Particulate  Content-  Particulate content is the amount of inorganic contaminates present in the diesel fuel.
Particulates- Particulates are contaminating sediments from fuel degradation sludge, metals oxidation and other sources.
Pour Point (PP)- The Pour Point (commonly abbreviated as PP) is the temperature of the fuel when it jells or becomes a solid and
no longer flows.
PPM - Parts per Million
Premium Diesel Fuel-  Premium Diesel Fuel is regular diesel fuel that contains specific additives in the appropriate amounts that
improve and optimize the performance of the fuel.   While different gasoline can be compared by octane ratings there are no
established standards to compare Premium Diesel Fuels from different sources.  Nor are their clear cut definitions of what
additional chemistries are required to achieve true 'Premium' status beyond the inclusion of at least two chemical upgrades
(typically detergency and lubricity agents.) Regularly utilized improvements include:
    • Detergency
    • Lubricity
    • Cetane
    • Anti-rust/corrosion Inhibitor
    • Stabilizer Chemistry
    • Cold Flow Improver
    • Pour Point Reducer
    • Anti-static (over and above what is utilized in the refining process)
PTB- PTB references the portion of a treat rate in Pounds per Thousand Barrels.  Utilized almost exclusively by the refining
industry.
Refinery- A refinery is a processing plant that takes crude oil and processes or “refines” it into the useful products of alcohol,
gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene and other chemical compounds.

Rust Modifiers- Rust (or corrosion) modifiers prevent pitting and erosion of metal surfaces which leads to engine damage and
potential operation failure.
Sludge-  Sludge is a buildup of degraded fuel that will clog fuel pumps and fuel injectors.
Stabilizers- Stabilizers slows the natural hydrocarbon degradation of diesel fuel during long-term storage.
Sulfur- Sulfur is a naturally occurring contaminate in diesel fuel that increases corrosion and emissions.
Top Tier-  Top Tier is relatively new term in regards to gasoline and diesel fuel.    The original intent was to be of a benefit to both
suppliers and end users by providing a specialized marketing term to identify fuels which have been modified or upgraded from the
accepted standard quality to meet OEM expectations.
In Gasoline: To achieve 'top tier' status a supplier must pay a registration fee with the understanding that they must utilize an
acknowledged superior detergency in their fuel in the manufacturer's recommended dosage rate.   Including the increased
amount of superior detergency is the only requirement.
In Diesel Fuel: "Top tier' status for diesel fuel has significantly more expectations that that required for gasoline.   In order to
proclaim 'top tier' diesel fuel sellers must include deposit modifiers, lubricity, stability, and additional protections against
particulate and water contamination.  This last requirement is satisfied with the implementation of 10 micron filter on low flow (or
a 30 micron or smaller on high flow) pumps.
In both instances, as long as the registration fee is paid, there are no testing results or proof that the additional improvements have
been implemented required for marketers to claim 'top tier' status.   Only an affidavit of compliance submitted with each application.  
The fee is based on the amount of 'top tier' designated gallons sold.   It is up to the customers or end users to pursue quality
assurances from the seller.  
At this time there is no program for confirmation of 'top tier' compliance and adherence.
Trace Metals- Trace Metals are small amounts of metal particulars present in crude oil.
Viscosity - Viscosity is a measure of diesel fuel thickness. A high viscosity fuel is hard to burn and causes poor injector spray. Low
viscosity can cause injector leak and wear.
FAQs
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Featuring:
FirePower Premium Fuel Additives